Morris County, Kansas

Morris County Silos near Burdick, Kansas by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

Morris County Silos near Burdick, Kansas by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

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Morris County, Kansas

Morris County, Kansas

Towns & Places:

Burdick

Council Grove

Delavan

Diamond Spring – Oasis on the Santa Fe Trail

Dunlap

Dwight

Latimer

Kaw Mission in Council Grove, Kansas by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

The Kaw Mission in Council Grove, Kansas is one of the oldest buildings in the state, by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

Parkerville

Skiddy, aka: Camden – Ghost Town

White City

Extinct Towns

Santa Fe Trail Through Morris County

Border Troubles in Morris County

Cheyenne Outbreak of Morris County

Seth Hays – Founder of Council Grove

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One of the oldest and most historic counties in the state, Morris County is located in eastern Kansas and was one of the original counties formed, first called Wise County. Its history pre-dates Kansas becoming a territory with the site of Council Grove first mentioned by travelers as far back as 1820. The region was first held by the various Indian tribes as neutral ground, upon which all had a right in common to hunt on its soil and fish in its streams.

William Becknell on the Santa Fe Trail.

William Becknell on the Santa Fe Trail.

In a treaty concluded with the Indians in 1825, the U.S. Government procured the right of way for a public highway from the Missouri River to the eastern boundary of Mexico, which, having been established, passed into history as the “Santa Fe Trail.” This trail ran through Morris County, and part of it now constitutes Council Grove’s Main Street.

A treaty was made with the Kanza Indians in the latter part of 1846, or early in 1847, by which a tract of land measuring 20 square miles was obtained for a reservation, which included the land on which is built Council Grove would later be built.

Conference of Kanza Indians with US Commission of Indian Affairs, the Illustrated London News, 1857.

Conference of Kanza Indians with US Commission of Indian Affairs, the Illustrated London News, 1857.

In the spring of 1847, the Kanza tribe was moved on to the land embraced within the limits of the reservation. Up until this time no white men had settled in the area. However, that changed in the fall of 1847 when  Seth M. Hays, a citizen of Westport, Missouri, obtained a license from the government to trade with the Indians. He soon resettled near the Kanza reservation and established a trading post at what would become Council Grove. Other traders followed soon followed including the Choteau Brothers in 1848, and a trader named Kennedy in 1849.

The Santa Fe Trail to New Mexico having been established, Waldo, Hall & Co. gained a contract with the government in 1849 to carry the United States mail to Santa Fe, a point 700 miles west of the Missouri River. For a number of years after the trail was opened Council Grove was the only trading post between Independence, Missouri and Santa Fe, and, as a consequence, became a point of considerable importance to westward-bound travelers.

Kanza/Kaw Chief

Kanza/Kaw Chief

In 1850, the Methodist Episcopal Church entered into a contract with the government to establish a school for the education of the Kanza Indians. The same year, the Board of Missions also erected a stone mission at Council Grove. Besides the mission school, several other buildings were also constructed in 1850 and among them a depot for the storage of government supplies and other military material. The mail company also put up several buildings, and all the inhabitants in Morris County were those either employed by the government or working for companies who had contracts with the government, numbering about 25 in all.

At that time the Kanza Indians on the reservation numbered about 1,700 where relations with the Indians remained peaceful until 1854 when Kansas became an official territory. Seth M. Hays built the first house in Morris County, which was a log store on the west bank of the Neosho River on the Santa Fe Trail.

In 1854, Kansas became a Territory by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. Andrew Horatio Reeder was appointed as the first governor of the new territory and soon thereafter, with a full corps of staff officers, arrived at Council Grove, which he contemplated making the capital. In this he failed; however, owing to the fact that the land required for that purpose could not be obtained from the Indians.

Up to this time, no attempts at settlement had been made anywhere else in the county until a man named J.C. Munkers took a claim upon what became known as Munkers’ Creek in 1854.

Governor Andrew Reeder

Governor Andrew Reeder

One of the first official acts of Governor Reeder was to order an election for members of the Territorial Legislature. During this time excitement was running high in the region as new settlers sought control over the territory as a Free State or a Pro-Slavery State. Two men, one from each party, were submitted for the legislature.

A.I. Baker was the Free-State candidate and Mobillon McGee, the pro-slavery candidate. The election was held on March 30, 1855, and Baker fairly won. However, McGee, on some trumped-up cause, contested the seat with him, and as the first legislature was largely comprised of pro-slavery advocates, Baker was denied the seat and replaced with McGee. One of the first duties of the legislature, since referred to as the “Bogus Legislature” was to divide a large portion of the territory into counties. What would later become Morris County was first named Wise County, for Henry A. Wise, who would later become the Governor of Virginia during the John Brown seizure of Harper’s Ferry.  The county was first combined with other adjacent counties for its management, judicial and revenue purposes.

However, the county was separated from the others in 1858, and separate officers and officials were put in place and the county seat was designated as Council Grove. In the meantime, the Free-Staters had taken control of the territory and in February 1859, the county’s name was changed from Wise to Morris in honor of Thomas Morris, a United States Senator from Ohio in 1832, who distinguished himself as an opponent of slavery. The population in 1859 was about 600 people.

Kanza Indians

Kanza Indians

In the meantime, as more and more white settlers were encroaching upon their lands, the Kanza Indians finally rebelled and 400 of them entered Council Grove on June 2, 1859, in full feathered headdress, painted and equipped for war. Though negotiations were attempted, a battle erupted in which two white men were wounded and a bloody war was averted only by the Indians giving up the two warriors who had done the shooting. They were immediately hanged by the white settlers. That same year, in October, the Kanza reservation was set apart and assigned in severalty to various individuals of the tribe.

In 1860 Morris County settlers suffered greatly from a drought — not a single bushel of corn was raised. About 62,000 pounds of food out of the relief supply at Atchison was issued to Morris County people in the winter of 1860. Before there was an opportunity to plant another crop the Civil War broke out. The total population at that time was about  800 and consisted of many who were divided in their sympathies between the North and the South.

Shamleffer and C.N. James Trading Post, Council Grove, Kansas.

Shamleffer and C.N. James Trading Post, Council Grove, Kansas.

However, before the close of the war, Morris County had furnished 125 Union soldiers. A number of Kanza Indians also enlisted, which raised the total to 180. During the Civil War and for a number of years afterward, Morris County was molested by guerrillas and horse thieves and a number of lynchings and murders took place.

Shortly after the close of the war a new influx of settlers came into the county, especially ranchers who drove great herds of cattle into the area for pasturage. The county received its last Indian scare in June 1868 when some 400 Cheyenne Indians flooded Council Grove armed and painted for war. Though they were destined for a confrontation with the Kanza Indians, the settlers of Council Grove, taken completely by surprise, held themselves in readiness for whatever might happen. An Indian battle did occur with the Kanza Indians referred to as the Cheyenne Outbreak of Morris County.

The old bank in Parkerville, Kansas is long closed by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

The old bank in Parkerville, Kansas is long closed by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

By 1871, a number of new settlements had sprung up in the county, at which time a county seat contest occurred  When Parkerville became an incorporated town. Challenging Council Grove for the county seat, an election was called to settle the matter. All sorts of trickery was resorted to by both sides, including bringing in men by the hundreds for voting purposes. At that time the population of the county was 2,225. The number of votes cast was 1,312, of which 899 were for Council Grove and 413 for Parkerville. The question was not brought up again.

That same year in the summer, the county saw a disastrous prairie fire that swept in from the west. The blaze was fought by all the male citizens of Council Grove under the leadership of Patrick Maloney, who was said to be the best firefighter in the state. The women pumped water and sacks were wetted by small boys. Before the fire had run its course, the crops and grass of much of the county was destroyed.

Two years later in 1873, the remaining Kanza Indians were removed from the county to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) and their remaining lands were opened to white settlement. By 1875 the population of the county had grown to almost 4,600 and the area had developed into a major farming and ranching area.

Benjamin Pap Singleton

Benjamin “Pap” Singleton

In the spring of 1878, Benjamin “Pap” Singleton, a former slave who escaped to freedom in 1846, claimed land in Morris County in a settlement named Dunlap. Before long, freedmen known as “exodusters” came by the hundreds from the post-Reconstruction South to seek homesteads in the area. In the early 1880s, the Presbyterian Church in Dunlap founded the Freedmen’s Academy to provide an education to exodusters in Kansas. However, the  Academy would later close in the mid-1890s. Today, Dunlap is a semi-ghost town.

By 1890 the county population had increased to 11,381. In the next ten years, when many of the counties in Kansas were losing in population on account of the money panic, hard times, and the boom in the southwestern states, Morris County showed a small gain, the number of inhabitants in 1900 being 11,967.

The flood of 1903 raised the Neosho River several feet above all recorded high watermarks and destroyed considerable property. Another serious flood occurred in 1908. However, the county continued to thrive and by 1910, had three railroads running through it, more than $3 million in farm products annually, and a population of about 12,400.

Morris County moved on into the future over the next century, while continuing to retain its rich history and agricultural base. However, like many other Kansas counties whose economic base is primarily farming and ranching, its population has gradually diminished over the years, now supporting just a little more than 5,500 people.

Grave stones at the old town of Diamond Springs, Kansas by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

Grave stones at the old town of Diamond Springs, Kansas by Kathy Weiser-Alexander.

Numerous sites representing its fascinating Santa Fe Trail history can still be seen including a historic tour in Council Grove; Diamond Spring, a famous stop along the trail; numerous ruts from wagon trains visible across the Flint Hills, and more. Though Dunlap is nearly a ghost town today, its history as once being an all African-American City is well worth a stop. The county is also home to the Council Grove Federal Reservoir, which provides fishing, water sports, and camping.

More Information:

Morris County
501 W. Main
Council Grove,  Kansas 66846

Compiled and edited by Kathy Weiser-Alexander/Legends of Kansas, updated September 2020.

Also See:

Morris County, 1899.

Morris County, 1899.

Benjamin “Pap” Singleton – Leading the Exodusters

Kansas History

Morris County Photo Gallery

Santa Fe Trail – Highway to the Southwest

Santa Fe Trail Through Kansas

Sources:

Blackmar, Frank W.; Kansas Cyclopedia, Standard Publishing, 1912
Cutler, William G.; History of the State of Kansas, A. T. Andreas, 1883

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